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Changing An Oath

Question

Zaid is addicted to pornography. So he makes taubah and makes a نذر that he will keep 10 days fast if he was to return to it. But later his nafs get the better of him and he returns to the sin. Knowing that he won’t be able to fulfil his نذر he changes it to not eating lunch the next day. Then to a specific istighfar(سيد الاستغفار) then to one month of continuous fast. 

My question is:

1) Is it permissible to change the نذر?

2) Does he have to read the specific istighfar?

3) How grave is the sin of pornography?

4) After changing his نذر does he still have to fulfil the other older ones that he made ?

Note 
He changed all of them after engaging in the sin at least once.

 

Answer

Zaid will have to first of all, realize how bad his current condition is and then hasten to repent together with showing remorse for his past sins, seeking forgiveness from Allah Ta’aala, stopping these types of sins immediately and resolving never to commit them again.

 

We advise him to seek the help and aid of Allah Ta’aala, and demonstrate his absolute neediness of Him; verily, there is no way to attain the blessing of guidance or repentance except with the Help and Grace of Allah Ta’aala. When Allah Ta’aala gives a person the opportunity of making Taubah, then this is a sign that He wants his servant to turn in remorse to Him and this shows how much He loves him. So one should not let any such opportunity go to waste whereby one has been inspired to make sincere Taubah. One should engage in Taubah without wasting any time whatsoever. 

In Zaid’s situation, he made a conditional Nadhr (vow), that he will keep 10 days fast if he were to return to the vice of pornography. Once such a conditional Nadhr/vow is made and the condition takes place (in this case that of returning to pornography), it becomes incumbent on him to fulfil the vow of keeping the 10 fasts as soon as possible.  If he is physically well and is able to keep the fasts then it will be compulsory upon him to do so. He cannot thereafter change the implication of the vow to not eating lunch or making a specific Istighfaar, etc.   So in answer to your first question, no, he cannot change the Nadhr.

Yes, if Zaid is so ill or frail and the illness or frailty is such that he will not be able to keep the fasts, then he is allowed to give Fidya for each of the fasts. If one is expected to recover from the illness, one will not be permitted to pay Fidyah.  The value of this Fidya is the same as Sadaqatul Fitr, which is the value of 1.6 kg of wheat or 3.2 kg of barley (or their equivalent value in your area) to be given to the poor.  

It is not permissible for one to change his Nadhr, once a vow is uttered it becomes binding and one cannot retract from the vow. For that reason Zaid doesn’t have to read the specific Istighfar 

 

Important note: A vow must be said verbally. If Zaid mentally made the vow of keeping 10 fasts (without verbally articulating it), the vow will not be binding.

 

How grave is the sin of pornography?:-

The sin of pornography is a very terrible sin and is from the Kabeerah/major sins. There are a lot of harms in perpetrating this sin, both in this world and the hereafter. Allah Ta’aala says in the Holy Quraan: “Tell the  believing men that they should lower their gazes and guard their chastity This is purer for them; Allah Ta’aala is Informed of what they do. And tell the believing women that they should lower their gazes and preserve their chastity…..”(Suratun Noor 30-31) 

 Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu reports that Nabi ﷺ, said: ‘Allah has written for the son of Adam (Alaihis-Salaam) his share of adultery which he commits inevitably. The adultery of the eyes is the sight; i.e. to gaze at forbidden things (such as naked bodies and the relevant filthy acts in pornography), the adultery of the tongue is (promiscuous) talk, and the inner self wishes and desires and the private parts testify (i.e. perpetrates the evil of) all of this or denies it’.(Musnad Ahmad  pg437-438 volume 7 Hadeeth 7705) 

 

Nabi ﷺis reported to have said: ‘No man should look at another man’s private part and no woman should look at another woman private part….. ’ (Sahih Muslim pg266 volume 1 Hadeeth 338) 

In this world itself sometimes Allah Ta’aala disgraces one for the sin of pornography and in the Hereafter if Allah Ta’aala does not forgive him then, there is a great and terrible punishment awaiting that person.

 

There are lots of harms in watching pornograhy 

One will feel very tired, pornography damages the brain and a porn addict’s brain looks similar to that of a heroin-addict in a brain scan. In both cases, you are changing the very structure of your brain. 

Pornography will lead one to masturbation which is, Haraam in itself and has great harms for the body. Both pornography and masturbation affect the marriage because both destroy the manhood of a man. In the case of a porn addict, the sight of porn pictures may remain in his heart and mind for a long time. At times, the sight remains whilst in Salaah or in other forms of Ibadat. The negative consequences of pornography are too many to mention. In brief, it robs one of true human values and spirituality. The real life and essence of Imaan is lost. If a person is sincere in making Tawbah from this evil act, he can be rehabilitated according to his level of sincerity. One should not be despondent and never despair.  People who fornicated at night clubs and casinos made Tawbah and became Walis of Allah Ta’aala.

Remedies to leave the sin of pornography

To most people, sex trafficking is a problem that exists in distant foreign countries. You may think, “But it certainly isn’t something that would involve me, is it?”  If you view pornography, then the answer is “Yes.” So ponder on this how these poor women and poor children have been deceived, manipulated or even kidnapped to act out scenes of pornography. It is true that some of them want to do this evil act but most of them are forced. 

Keep yourself occupied with other activities, such as playing permissible sports or reading a Deeni book. Staying occupied in beneficial work and not remaining idle lessens the chance of evil and negative thoughts entering one’s mind. When the desire to do this sin arises then do not stay alone. If you have a smart phone then change it to a simple one without internet access and if there is a computer in the house then put it in a place where everybody would pass by it and can see what is being accessed on the screen. Do not spend too long time in the toilet and bathroom because in these two places sometimes you will find yourself having more desire to watch porn than other places. Place Islamic reminders such as printed Qur’anic verses or Hadiths in the home that can remind you of your Deeni obligations. Perform Salaat at its prime time, and regularly perform Salat al-Layl/Tahajjud (Night Prayer). At the start of the morning, recite Ayat Al-Kursi five times. Developing Taqwa is of the utmost importance. Taqwa maintains the individual’s ability to be aware of one’s actions and refrain from sinful behavior. Keep company of the pious people. Attend Ulama’s Bayaans and be in their company. Very important, speak to one Aalim whom you feel at ease to speak with and tell him about your situation. Insha Allah Taa’la he will help to guide and steer you away from the sin of pornography. Make a regular habit of reciting Quraan, Zhikr, Durood and Istighfaar. Finally try to perform two Rakaats of Salaatul-Haajah every day and thereafter, make Duaa, begging Allah Ta’aala to take you from this terrible sin then you will see the improvement.

 

We pray to Allah Ta’aala to take you out from this terrible sin very soon and protect every one of us from all kind of sins and draw us to His Mercy and Pleasure. May Allah Ta’aala keep us with complete Imaan, grant us death on perfect Imaan and resurrect us with total Imaan n the company of the Ambiyaa (Alaihimus-Salaam), Shuhadaa and Saaliheen. Ameen. 

 

Checked and Approved By:

Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.

References

وسواء كان النذر مطلقا أو مقيدا معلقا بشرط بأن قال: ‌إن ‌فعلت ‌كذا ‌فعلي ‌لله حج أو عمرة أو صوم أو صلاة أو ما أشبه ذلك من الطاعات، حتى لو فعل ذلك يلزمه الذي جعله على نفسه، ولم يجز عنه كفارة، وهذا قول أصحابنا – رضي الله عنهم.(بدائع الصنائع/ص90/ج5)

سواء كان النذر مطلقا أو معلقا بشرط بأن قال إن فعلت كذا فلله علي أن أحج حتى يلزمه الوفاء إذا وجد الشرط ولا يخرجبالكفارة في ظاهر الرواية عن أبي حنيفة رحمه الله تعالى(الفتاوى الهندية/ص262/ج1)

وَلَوْ قَدَرَ عَلَى الصَّوْمِ يَبْطُلُ حُكْمُ ‌الْفِدَاءِ؛ لِأَنَّ شَرْطَ الْخَلْفِيَّةِ اسْتِمْرَارُ الْعَجْزِ فِي الصَّوْمِ.(البحر الرائق/ص308/ج2)

الْمَرِيضُ إذَا تَحَقَّقَ الْيَأْسُ مِنْ الصِّحَّةِ فَعَلَيْهِ الْفِدْيَةُ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِنْ الْمَرَضِ اهـ وَكَذَا مَا فِي الْبَحْرِ لَوْ نَذَرَ صَوْمَ الْأَبَدِ فَضَعُفَ عَنْ الصَّوْمِ لِاشْتِغَالِهِ بِالْمَعِيشَةِ لَهُ أَنْ يُطْعِمَ وَيُفْطِرَ لِأَنَّهُ اسْتَيْقَنَ أَنَّهُ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى الْقَضَاء).شامى/ص427/ج2)

وَلَوْ أَخَّرَ الْقَضَاءَ حَتَّى صَارَ شَيْخًا فَانِيًا أَوْ كَانَ النَّذْرُ بِصِيَامِ الْأَبَدِ فَعَجَزَ لِذَلِكَ أَوْ بِاشْتِغَالِهِ بِالْمَعِيشَةِ لِكَوْنِ صِنَاعَتِهِ شَاقَّةً فَلَهُ أَنْ يُفْطِرَ وَيُطْعِمَ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينًا عَلَى مَا تَقَدَّمَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لِعُسْرَتِهِ يَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ إنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ.(الفتاوى الهندية/ص209/1)

 

(قَوْلُهُ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ) أَيْ أَوْ مِنْ  دَقِيقِهِ أَوْ سَوِيقِهِ، أَوْ صَاعِ تَمْرٍ أَوْ زَبِيبٍ أَوْ شَعِيرٍ أَوْ قِيمَتِهِ، وَهِيَ أَفْضَلُ عِنْدَنَا لِإِسْرَاعِهَا بِسَدِّ حَاجَةِ الْفَقِيرِ.(شامى/ص72-73/ج2)

 

[1](قَوْلُهُ وَهُوَ وَاجِبٌ فِي الْمَنْذُورِ) أَقُولُ وَالنَّذْرُ لَا يَكُونُ إلَّا بِاللِّسَانِ، وَلَوْ نَذَرَ بِقَلْبِهِ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ بِخِلَافِ النِّيَّةِ؛ لِأَنَّ النَّذْرَ ‌عَمَلُ ‌اللِّسَانِ وَالنِّيَّةُ الْمَشْرُوعَةُ انْبِعَاثُ الْقَلْبِ عَلَى شَأْنٍ أَنْ يَكُونَ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى كَذَا فِي الْبَزَّازِيَّةِ.(درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام/ص212/ج1)

قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ الْمُلْتَقَى وَالنَّذْرُ ‌عَمَلُ ‌اللِّسَانِ(شامى/ص433/ج2)

 

قُل لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ يَغُضُّواْ مِنۡ أَبۡصَٰرِهِمۡ وَيَحۡفَظُواْ فُرُوجَهُمۡۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَزۡكَىٰ لَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا يَصۡنَعُونَ ٣٠ وَقُل لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِ يَغۡضُضۡنَ مِنۡ أَبۡصَٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحۡفَظۡنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبۡدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَاۖ وَلۡيَضۡرِبۡنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّۖ وَلَا يُبۡدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ ءَابَآئِهِنَّ أَوۡ ءَابَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآئِهِنَّ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوۡ بَنِيٓ إِخۡوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوۡ بَنِيٓ أَخَوَٰتِهِنَّ أَوۡ نِسَآئِهِنَّ أَوۡ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُهُنَّ أَوِ ٱلتَّٰبِعِينَ غَيۡرِ أُوْلِي ٱلۡإِرۡبَةِ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ أَوِ ٱلطِّفۡلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَظۡهَرُواْ عَلَىٰ عَوۡرَٰتِ ٱلنِّسَآءِۖ وَلَا يَضۡرِبۡنَ بِأَرۡجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعۡلَمَ مَا يُخۡفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّۚ وَتُوبُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ ٣١(سورة النور30-31)

[1]قال أبو هريرة عن  النبي -صلي الله عليه وسلم -: “إن الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كتب على ابن آدم حظه من الزنا، أدركه لا محالة، وزنا العين النظر، وزنا اللسان النطق، والنفس تمنى وتشتهي، والفرج يصدق ذلك أو يكذبه”.(مسند أحمد/ص437-438/ج7/رقم7705)

عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «لَا يَنْظُرُ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى ‌عَوْرَةِ الرَّجُلِ، وَلَا الْمَرْأَةُ إِلَى ‌عَوْرَةِ الْمَرْأَةِ، وَلَا يُفْضِي الرَّجُلُ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ فِي ثَوْبٍ وَاحِدٍ، وَلَا تُفْضِي الْمَرْأَةُ إِلَى الْمَرْأَةِ فِي الثَّوْبِ الْوَاحِدِ»)صحيح مسلم/ص266/ج1/رقم338)

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