During these current times of Covid will it be permissible for women to perform Janaazah Salaah behind the men? The laws of Hijaab will be followed.
Women should not join the Salatul-Janazah due to a number of reasons. Consider the following;
1. In regard to this matter, below are some of the views of the Taabi’een, and the Ulama of the past;
عن محمد بن المنتشر، قال: كان مسروق لا يصلي على جنازة معها امرأة
)مصنف ابن ابي شيبة – رقم : 11403(
Translation; (The great Tabi’ee) Masrooq Rahimahullah would not perform a Janaazah salaah in which a woman participated.
عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ قَالَ: سُئِلَ: ” أَتُصَلِّي الْمَرْأَةُ عَلَى الْجَنَائِزِ؟ قَالَ: لَا تُصَلِّي عَلَيْهَا طَوَاهِرَ وَلَا حَائِضًا
)مصنف عبد الرزاق – رقم(6297:
Translation; (The great Tabi’ee) Shabi Rahimahullah says, he was asked, ‘should women perform Janaazah Salaah?’ he replied, ‘women should not perform Janaazah Salaah, niether the clean women nor those women who are in Haidh (experiencing menstruation).
عَنِ الْوَصَّافِيِّ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ عِنْدَ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، فَكَتَبَ إِلَى عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ: انْظُرْ مَنْ قِبَلَكَ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ، فَلَا يَحْضُرْنَ جُمُعَةً وَلَا جِنَازَةً، فَإِنَّهُ لَا حَقَّ لَهُنَّ فِي جُمُعَةٍ وَلَا جِنَازَةٍ
(مصنف ابن أبي شيبة رقم5194)
Translation; Wassaf Rahimahullah says, I was by the Khalifah Umar Bin Abdul Aziz Rahimahullah. He then wrote the following to Abdul Hameed, ‘look at the women by your area, they should not attend any Jummah and Jinaazah because there is no right for them in Jumu’ah and Janaazah.
2. This is also the view of the Ulama of the recent past;
When Mufti Azizurahmaan was asked regarding the ruling of women performing Janaazah Salaahs in which there are men, his response was;
اورحاضر ہوناعورتوں کا مردوں کی جماعت میں مطلقا مکروہ ہے
(Fatawaa Daarul Uloom Deoband 5-372)
Translation; Women being present in a congregation in which there are men is Makrooh at all times.
When Moulana Muhammed Yusuf Ludyaanwi Rahimahullah was asked regarding women participating in a Janaazah Salaah in which there are men, his response was;
سوال:.کیا عورت نماز جنازہ میں شرکت کرسکتی ہے ؟ یعنی جماعت کے پیچھے عورتیں کھڑی ہوسکتی ہیں؟
جواب:.. جنازہ مردوں کو پڑھنا چاہئے ،عورتوں کو نہیں
آپ کے مسائل اور ان کا حل) 4-396/397)
Translation; Question – can women participate in Janaazah Salaah? Can they stand behind the (men) Jamaat?
Answer – men should perform the Janazah Salaah. Women should not perform the Janaazah Salaah.
3. In the case where the deceased is a male, one of his closest relatives is his wife. Her Iddah commences as soon as he passes away. She should be indoors and away from strange men. By her leaving the house and exposing herself in front of strange men without any dire necessity by performing Janazah Salaah etc. means she will be involved in an impermissible activity.
4. A person might argue and say, women should be allowed to perform Salaatul–Janaazah but at the same time, a system should be put in place, thereby ensuring that the harms of intermingling, mixed gatherings, women who are in Iddat leaving their homes, etc. don’t come about. The truth of the matter is that history bears testimony that when leniency was shown and when such doors were opened it never brought about positive results. Rather, the leniency only increased and the opening of doors only extended until eventually it lead to such compromises been made, where at times the injunctions of Deen were violated and desecrated.
Anyone who has his finger on the pulse of our society, will affirm this, because they know that if the doors have to be opened for women to join the Janazah Salaaah, then in time we will not be able to control the issue at hand.
Today it is a matter of them performing Janaazah Salaah, tomorrow it will be a matter of them accompanying the Janaazah to the Qabristaan etc. from which they are prohibited.
Imam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) has recorded a Hadith of Sayyidatuna Umm Atiyya (Radhiallaahu Anha). She said,
عَنْ أُمِّ عَطِيَّةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، قَالَتْ: نُهِينَا عَنِ اتِّبَاعِ الجَنَائِزِ
(ج1 ص170 – صحيح البخاري – باب اتباع النساء الجنائز)
Translation, ‘we were prohibited from following the Janaaza….’
The Fuqaha (Rahimahullah) have mentioned: It is Makrooh for women to follow the Janaazah.
Allaamah Shaami (Rahimahullah) has mentioned: It is Makrooh Tahreemi (impermissible) for women to follow the Janaazah due to the Hadeeth in which Rasulullah ﷺ addressed such women by saying;
ارْجِعْنَ مَأْزُورَاتٍ غَيْرَ مَأْجورَات
Translation; “return in the condition you are carrying sin not reward.
Even though the words of the above narration has been narrated in Ibnu Majah with a weak chain, the meaning of the narration is strengthened by Hadhrat Aisha Radhiyallah-Anha when she indicated towards the changing of times by saying, ‘Had the Messenger ﷺ seen what the women have initiated (in their way of life) after his demise, he would have definitely prevented them, just as the women of Bani Isra’il were prevented’. If Hadhrat Aishah Radhiyallah-Anha said this during her time, then what could one think of our time’’.
More than 1400 years have passed by and it is clear that the Fitnahs (temptation) are only on an increase. Immodesty, intermingling of the sexes, etc. are escalating in societies. Janaazah Salaah is Fardh Kifaayah (meaning that it is not compulsory upon each and every individual, but if a group of individuals undertake this task then all other individuals will be exempted from this duty.) By the men performing the Salaatul Janaazah, the women are exempted from this duty. Hence, is not necessary for them to perform the Janaazah Salaah, but abstaining from Fitnah is necessary. By them being present at Janaazahs there is a great fear of Fitnah. The Messengerﷺ said, “I have not left behind any fitnah more harmful to men than women.”
As an Aalim, one should have foresight. Think ahead; be concerned of the future generation and not only about one’s area or oneself. Understand that as an individual, I can only control a system in my area while I am alive. Consider the harms that could transpire in the future. Think about what harms could come about in other areas. Understand, that during these current times, even if one’s family in particular strictly adheres to the laws of Hijaab, there is no guarantee that the other women of the locality will adhere to the laws of Hijaab. For argument’s sake, if we accept and say; the laws of Hijaab were strictly and correctly adhered to during one Janaazah or few Janaazahs, then to, it is not necessary that the same laws of Hijaab will be correctly adhered to during other Janaazahs. similarly, if in one specific area or locality due to a system that is implemented the laws of Hijaab are strictly adhered to, over there to, women should avoid performing the Janaazah Salaah, the simple reason is because by allowing them to do so, one will be opening such a door the effects of which might well be seen in other localities where the laws of Hijaab are not observed. They might initiate this practice (i.e. of women joining and following the Janaazah) thereby justifying it by saying that in so and so place it was done by so and so.
We conclude, there is no need or necessity for women to perform Janazah Salaah or follow the Janazah despite the current situation. In fact, we foresee harm if this is implemented. Hence, they should not perform the Janaazah Salaah.
Checked and Approved By:
Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.
عَنْ أُمِّ عَطِيَّةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، قَالَتْ: نُهِينَا عَنِ اتِّبَاعِ الجَنَائِزِ، وَلَمْ يُعْزَمْ عَلَيْنَا
(ج1 ص170 – صحيح البخاري – باب اتباع النساء الجنائز)
ويكره اتباع النساء الجنائز” أي تحريما كما في الدر
)ص607 – كتاب حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح شرح نور الإيضاح – فصل في حملها ودفنها(
قَوْلُهُ وَيُكْرَهُ خُرُوجُهُنَّ تَحْرِيمًا) لِقَوْلِهِ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «ارْجِعْنَ مَأْزُورَاتٍ غَيْرَ مَأْجُورَاتٍ» رَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَهْ بِسَنَدٍ ضَعِيفٍ، لَكِنْ يُعَضِّدُهُ الْمَعْنَى الْحَادِثُ بِاخْتِلَافِ الزَّمَانِ الَّذِي أَشَارَتْ إلَيْهِ عَائِشَةُ بِقَوْلِهَا: لَوْ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – رَأَى مَا أَحْدَثَ النِّسَاءُ بَعْدَهُ لَمَنَعَهُنَّ كَمَا مُنِعَتْ نِسَاءُ بَنِي إسْرَائِيلَ، وَهَذَا فِي نِسَاءِ زَمَانِهَا، فَمَا ظَنُّك بِنِسَاءِ زَمَانِنَا. وَأَمَّا مَا فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ «عَنْ أُمِّ عَطِيَّةَ نُهِينَا عَنْ اتِّبَاعِ الْجَنَائِزِ وَلَمْ يَعْزِمْ عَلَيْنَا» أَيْ أَنَّهُ نَهْيُ تَنْزِيهٍ، فَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَخْتَصَّ بِذَلِكَ الزَّمَنِ حَيْثُ كَانَ يُبَاحُ لَهُنَّ الْخُرُوجُ لِلْمَسَاجِدِ وَالْأَعْيَادِ، وَتَمَامُهُ فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ
(ج2ص232 – كتاب الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين رد المحتار – باب صلاة الجنازة )
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُصَفَّى قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سَلْمَانَ، عَنْ دِينَارٍ أَبِي عُمَرَ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ: خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَإِذَا نِسْوَةٌ جُلُوسٌ، فَقَالَ: «مَا يُجْلِسُكُنَّ» قُلْنَ: نَنْتَظِرُ الْجِنَازَةَ، قَالَ: «هَلْ تَغْسِلْنَ» قُلْنَ: لَا، قَالَ: «هَلْ تَحْمِلْنَ» ، قُلْنَ: لَا، قَالَ: «هَلْ تُدْلِينَ فِيمَنْ يُدْلِي» ، قُلْنَ: لَا، قَالَ: فَارْجِعْنَ مَأْزُورَاتٍ غَيْرَ مَأْجُورَاتٍ
(ج1ص502 – سنن ابن ماجه – باب ما جاء في اتباع النساء الجنائز)