Dissolving A Partnership

Question

  Zaid was doing business. There was an amount of 900 Dollars that was due to him. It as scheduled to reach him after a few days/ weeks. This 900 was all his profits from his business. 

Ahmad got into a partnership with him in this way that he invested equally by giving him 900 Dollars. They mutually agreed that 70% of the profits will go to Zaid and 30 % to Ahmad , since Ahmad is a silent partner. All the work is done by zaid. 

After one year ,  the business has a total of 2750 Dollars as profit. Both want to terminate this. How do they calculate their portions. 

Do we first give Ahmad his 900 (capital) and then divide the balance 70% and 30% ?? Or do we first divide the profits 70/30% and thereafter,  zaid pays Ahmad the initial 900??

Also noteworthy, is that Zaid initially had nothing. He was awaiting his amount of 900. When Ahmad invested 900 , Zaid did not use the 900 primarily in the business only. He used part of it in the business and the balance on himself and his family…knowing that he is going to “put back” later on.

There is some more clarity on on the below mentioned earlier question that might be important. 

After Zaid recieved his original amount of 900 dollars, he included it into the partnership. Then it is noteworthy here , that Zaid did not exclusively use the capital  (1800 dollars) for the business.  He used those funds for many of his personal needs , as well as the business. When profits of the business would come in , then those profit amounts would be kept aside. (The profits did not go back into the business) Like this , it continued…. Now, because Zaid was also using the capital for his own needs, then this capital gradually became lesser and lesser…

Eventually,  like currently,  the capital is finished. The 2750 is all the profits that had been kept aside. Now they want to terminate.

Answer

Based on the information you have provided, Zaid will be liable to pay Ahmad $900 from his own personal funds. However, when it comes to sharing the profits, all the profit that was accumulated before Zaid received his $900 from his previous business venture will solely be Ahmad’s, and  all the profit that was gained after he received his $900 will be shared out according to the agreed upon ratio i.e. 70 to 30.

 

Checked and Approved By:

Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.

References

المادة (1371) – (إذا كان رأس مال الشريكين متساويا وشرط لأحدهما حصة زائدة من الربح كثلثيه مثلا، فإذا كان عمل الاثنين مشروطا فالشركة صحيحة والشرط معتبر (انظر المادة 1345) ، أما إذا شرط عمل أحدهما فقط فينظر: وإذا شرط العمل على الشريك الذي حصته من الربح زائدة فتصح الشركة أيضا ويعتبر الشرط ويستحق ذلك الشريك بماله وبعمله الزيادة، لكن حيث كان رأس مال شريكه في يده في حكم مال المضاربة فتكون الشركة شركة شبيهة بالمضاربة ) [مجلة الاحكام مع شرحه درر الحكام ج٣ ص٣٨٩]

المضارب امين فرأس المال في يده في حكم الوديعة [مجلة الاحكام ص٣٧٧]

فعل ما لا يرضى به المودع في حق الوديعة تعد من الفاعل [مجلة الاحكام ص٢٣٦]

الامانة لا تكون مضمونة، يعني: اذا هلكت او ضاعت بلا صنع الامين ولا تقصير منه، فلا يلزمه الضمان [مجلة الاحكام ص٢٣٣]

وَأما الشّركَة بالأموال فلها شُرُوط عنانا كانت الشّركَة أَو مُفاوضَة منها أن يكون مَال الشّركة حَاضرا إِمَّا عِنْد العقد أَو عِنْد الشِّرَاء وَلَا يجوز بِمَال غَائِب أَو دين فِي الْحَالين ]تحفة الفقهاء ج٣ ص٦[

وَيُشْتَرَطُ حُضُورُ الْمَالِ عِنْدَ الْعَقْدِ أَوْ عِنْدَ الشِّرَاءِ لِأَنَّ الشَّرِكَةَ تَتِمُّ بِالشِّرَاءِ لِأَنَّ الرِّبْحَ بِهِ يَحْصُلُ كَمَا فِي الِاخْتِيَارِ[مجمع الانهر ج٢ ص٥٤٨-العلمية]

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