Photos And Video Calling


What is the ruling regarding Photos and Video Calling? Please provide a detailed explanation?


It should be well understood that, regardless of the method of production, digital or non-digital, it is Haraam to make/take pictures of animate objects. It is permissible however, to make take/make pictures of inanimate objects, such as trees and mountains etc.

Taking pictures of animate objects have been declared Haraam for two reasons:

  1. Attempting to imitate Allah Ta’aala in his creative quality.
  2. Pictures are a doorway to Shirk.

Resemblance to the creation of Allah Ta’aala is found to a greater extent in images produced mechanically. The greater the degree of resemblance between the image and the actual animate object, the greater the degree of prohibition would be, because the extent of challenging and attempting to resemble Allah Ta’aala’s work is greater when the image is closer to the original. It is quite clear to every intelligent person that a photograph resembles the original item to a very high degree when compared to a hand drawn image, which does not resemble the image in every aspect. It therefore follows that a photograph should be prohibited to a higher degree when compared to the hand produced image and so too a digital image when compared to a conventional photograph.

Hafiz Ibne Hajr Rahmatullahi Alaih has written that pictures were originally made to comfort people, to take lesson from the lives of the pious who passed on and so that the people might exert themselves in doing good deeds. Shaytaan initiated his Waswasah (evil whisperings) inciting that the pious ones before them had worshipped and honoured these pictures, and that they too should worship these pictures. Thus, Rasulullaah ﷺ prohibited us from pictures so that the door leading to Shirk may be shut altogether.

Mufti Muhammad Shafee’ Rahmatullahi Alaih has written: “Because Shirk is such a great and unforgivable sin, Shari’at has prohibited all those things which lead to Shirk, and from amongst those things is the making and usage of pictures.”

Allah Ta’ala in the Quraan-e-Majeed has used derivatives of the word Soorah (form/image) in several verses:

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Translation: He is Allah, the Creator, The Perfect Maker, The Fashioner who has the most beautiful names. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him. He is The Mighty, The Wise.

Allah Ta’aala declares in the Aayah above that He is Musawwir (The Fashioner of Forms and Shapes). Mufti Muhammad Shafee’ Rahmatullahi Alaih has written in Ma’ariful Quraan under the explanation of this verse that: “To create pictures (of animate objects) is to pretend that we have the same quality of Allah Ta’aala (which is tantamount to a form of Shirk/associating partners with Allah Ta’aala ).

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا والاخِرَةِ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Translation: Verily those who (desire to) cause harm to Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in this world and the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a disgraceful punishment.

Ikramah says that the verse was revealed with regards to those who make images/pictures.” (Ibn Katheer)

Mentioned below are Ahadeeth explaining the harms of picture taking/making:

Ibn Umar Radhiallahu Anhu narrates that Rasulullaah ﷺ said, “Those who make these images shall be punished on the day of Resurrection. They will be ordered, ‘Give life to what you created.”

The word “images” refers to images of animate objects e.g. humans, animals, fish, etc. As for inanimate objects, permission has been granted to draw or form them e.g. trees, buildings, rivers etc.

“Those who make these images shall be punished” – Ulema state that if a person forms these images with the intention of adopting similarity with Allah Ta’aala, then such a person will become a disbeliever. If however, one does not have this intention, he will be a flagrant sinner.

“They will be ordered, ‘Give life to what you created. ” – They had imitated the action of Allah Ta’aala’s creative quality but had not placed life into it as Allah Ta’aala had done. They will be ordered to place life into it which they will not be able to do, and will thus be punished.

Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu narrates that he heard Rasulullaah ﷺ saying, “Every painter shall be in the Hell-fire. A life will be given to every picture that he drew. That life will then punish him in Hell.” Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu said, “If you have no alternative, you may draw trees and objects that have no life.”

Aishah Radhiallahu Anha narrates, “Rasulullaah ﷺ returned from a journey. In his absence, I covered the porch of my house with a curtain which had pictures on it. When Rasulullaah ﷺ saw it, the colour of his face changed (due to anger). He said, ‘O ‘Aishah, Those who shall receive the severest punishment by Allah Ta’aala on the day of Resurrection shall be those who copy the creation of Allah.’ She said, “We therefore cut that curtain and made one or two pillows from it.”

Note: Pictures should be completely destroyed in such a manner that no form of the living being remains.

Ibn Hajar Rahmatullahi Alaih writes, “This is a special warning to those who use images because since the severe warning addresses the maker, it will apply to the user of the animate image as well because an object is made for usage/display and the maker is simply the means, whereas the user is the actual objective, so therefore the user is more deserving of this warning.

Note: Unnecessarily keeping pictures of animate objects is forbidden (there is exemption when there is a necessity, for e.g. photos that are required by government law such as for ID’s, Passports, etc.). The prohibition of keeping pictures of animate objects unnecessarily intensifies when there is reverence as well e.g. when it is hung up or/and placed in a frame for display purposes. Another evil is when pictures of the deceased are hung on the grave. This is an innovation which must be prohibited. Forming, taking pictures and drawing of inanimate objects are permissible. However, if this is done unnecessarily, it is disliked (Makruh Tanzihi) due to being an act of futility.

Abu Hurayrah Radhiallahu Anhu narrates, “I heard Rasulullaah ﷺ saying, “Allah Ta’aala said, “Who can be more oppressive than the one who tries to create something that I created? Let them (show their talent) by creating an ant, a grain seed or a barley seed (if it’s possible for them to do that)”

“Oppressive” in this Hadeeth: Oppression entails the misplacing of an attribute. Here the attribute of Allah Ta’aala is being assigned to the creation. The image-maker is thus deserving of the most serious form of punishment.

With regard to the statement in the above Hadeeth ‘who tries to create something that I created?’ – Ibn Hajar Rahmatullahi Alaih writes, “This similarity is only with regards to the image alone and not in all aspects.” This means that the person does not have to create in the complete form and manner in which Allah Ta’aala does. By simply creating the image of the creation of Allah Ta’aala, he is nevertheless attempting or deemed to have attempted to imitate the act of creation which is the exclusive attribute of Allah Ta’aala.

The statement in the above Hadeeth, ‘Let them (show their talent) by creating an ant, a grain seed or a barley seed (if it’s possible for them to do that)’ – This is a form of rebuke of such persons and an indication of their inability. In the world, he was effectively claiming his ability to create an animate being, whereas in the Hereafter he will be unable to produce even an inanimate form of creation. This Hadeeth indicates to one of the reasons why picture making is forbidden.

Creating and forming of shapes is amongst the special qualities of Allah Ta’aala, in which no other person can partner Him. By forming or drawing a picture, a person is practically claiming to partner Allah Ta’aala in these qualities. Man is completely weak. He is thus told in this Hadeeth to create in reality something small and insignificant like one atom, a grain seed or a barley seed. When he cannot do so, then he should completely refrain from forming animate objects.

Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu narrates, I heard Rasulullaah ﷺ saying, “Whoever makes an image in this world will be compelled to give life to it on the day of Resurrection, and he will not be able to give life to it.”

A man went to Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu and said, “I make these images (as an occupation). Give me a fatwa regarding it. He replied, “Come closer.” The man came closer. Again he said, “Come closer,” and the man drew even closer. Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu then placed his hand on the man’s and said, “I will inform you of what I heard from Rasulullaah ﷺ. I heard Rasulullaah ﷺ saying, “Every image maker shall be in the Hell-fire. A separate life will be given to him for every image that he produced. That life will then punish him in Hell.”

Ibn Abbaas Radhiallahu Anhu said, “If you have no alternative, you may draw trees and objects that have no life.”

Note: The more pictures one has made, the more severely he will be punished in the Hereafter. Rasulullaah ﷺ said, “On the Day of Judgment, some necks will emerge from the Fire of Hell. These necks will have two eyes that can see, two ears that can hear and a tongue that can speak. It will say, “I have been appointed to deal with three classes of people, all the rebellious tyrants, all those who associated a deity with Allah Ta’aala and all the makers of images.”

In another Hadeeth, Rasulullaah ﷺ is reported to have said, “The worst punished on the Day of Judgement will be a man who a Nabi killed or he killed a Nabi; the leader of misguidance; and the one who imitates or copies Allah Ta’aala.”

Ibn Mas‘ud Radhiallahu Anhu narrates, “I heard Rasulullaah ﷺ saying, “Those who used to make images shall receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection.”

Some scholars are of the opinion that Musawwirun refers to those who make images of idols which could be worshipped. By doing so, one will become a disbeliever, and due to his evil action leading others to the worst sin of Shirk, he will get the severest punishment. Other scholars state that the word Musawwirun is general. Images, as well as pictures that are made of animate objects are included in this warning.

A’ishah Radhiallahu Anha narrates that once Umm Habibah Radhiallahu Anha and Umm Salamah Radhiallahu Anha made mention of a church they had seen in Abyssinia in which there were images. They then mentioned it to Rasulullaah ﷺ who replied, “These people were such that when any pious person amongst them passed away, they built a place of worship over his grave and they formed images of this person at the place of worship. These are the worst of the creation of Allah in the sight of Allah on the Day of Judgement.”

Whilst photographs are prohibited, photographs of pious people are prohibited to an even greater extent, due to the possibility of it leading to idol-worship. Such photographs should never be taken, and if found should be destroyed.

Imam Nawawi rahmatullahi Alaih has written, “Our companions and other scholars are of the view that making up an image of a living being is severely prohibited and is amongst the major sins regarding which severe warnings have been sounded in the Ahadeeth. This applies equally to making a form of something which is looked down upon or not. Making such an item is prohibited in all conditions as in doing so, one is imitating the creative quality of Allah Ta’aala. This applies equally whether the image is created on a cloth or a sheet that is spread out or a gold or silver coin used as change or a vase, on a wall or otherwise. As for forming an image of a tree or the saddle of a camel, etc. in which there is no animate object, then this is not prohibited. This is the ruling regarding making of images.“

Abu Talhah Radhiallahu Anhu narrates that Rasulullaah ﷺ said, “The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture (of an animate object).”

Ibn Umar Radhiallahu Anhu narrates, “Jibreel Alaihis-Salaam promised Rasulullaah ﷺ that he will come to him. However, he delayed in coming and this made Rasulullaah ﷺ quite anxious. He eventually came out (of his house) and Jibreel Alaihis-Salaam met him. Rasulullaah ﷺ complained about his delay. He replied: ‘We do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture (of an animate object).”

A’ishah Radhiallahu Anha narrates, “Jibreel Alaihis-Salaam promised Rasulullaah ﷺ that he will come to him at a certain time. When the appointed time came, Jibreel Alaihis-Salaam was not there. Rasulullaah ﷺ had a stick in his hand which he threw aside and said, ‘Allah and His Messenger do not go back on their word.’ He then turned around and saw a pup (little dog) under his bed. He asked, ‘When did this dog come inside?’ I replied, ‘By Allah, I did not even know it was here.’ He ordered that it be sent out. Jibreel Alaihis-Salaam then came to him. Rasulullaah ﷺ said to him, ‘You made a promise to come at a certain time. I remained waiting for you but you did not come.’ Jibreel Alaiis-Salaam replied, ‘The dog that was in your house prevented me from coming. We (angels) do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture (of animate objects).”

The angels referred to here are the angels of mercy. Other angels like the protecting angels, the angels who are engaged in writing the actions of a person and the angel of death are not meant here. By keeping these pictures or a dog, a person is deprived of the company of the angels of mercy, thus depriving himself of their blessings, their seeking forgiveness on his behalf, and their inspiring him to obey Allah Ta’aala. The obvious result is the entry of Shayateen (devils) into the home. The home is thus deprived of Allah Ta’aala’s Mercy.

Abu al-Hayyaaj Hayyaan ibn Husayn narrates, “‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib Radhiallahu Anhu said to me, ‘Should I not send you to fulfil a task for which Rasulullaah ﷺ had sent me? The task is that if you see any(animate) picture, you must erase it. And if you see any elevated grave, you must level it (in line with the ground)”

At the time of the Conquest of Makkah when Rasulullaah ﷺ saw images/statues in the Ka’bah, he refused to enter it, but rather gave instructions for it to be destroyed, which was duly carried out.

Shaibah ibn Uthmaan Radhiallahu Anhu reports that Rasulullaah ﷺ said, “O Shaibah, efface (wipe out) every image in the Bait (Ka’bah).”

A’ishah Radhiallahu Anha states that Rasulullaah ﷺ would not leave anything in the house in which there were (animate) images except that he destroyed it.

Ali Radhiallahu Anhu says that on one occasion he had prepared food and invited Rasulullaah ﷺ. When he arrived at the home, he noticed some pictures and therefore returned.

When Umar Radhiallahu Anhu came to Sham, a Christian man prepared food for him and said, “I love that you accept my invitation, so that you and your companions can honour me.” He was a respectable person of Sham. Umar Radhiallahu Anhu said to him, “We do not enter your churches because of the pictures therein.”

Below are some Fatawa of senior Muftis of the recent past with regard to taking/making pictures of animate objects:

A Fatwa of Hazrat Maulana Zafar Ahmad Thanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih, endorsed by his teacher, Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih, states:

“..both the photographer and the one who allows himself to be photographed are guilty of Haraam, guilty of a major sin and in the light of some Ahadeeth they are Mal’oon (accursed) and Faasiq (flagrant sinners). It is Makrooh Tahreemi (forbidden) to follow them in Salaah…since forming pictures (of animate objects) is Haraam, then whatever new method of it is invented, it will be Haraam. The Hurmat will not disappear by altering the name or altering the method of production….The prohibition of pictures is established by Ahadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah (such a large number of authentic Ahadeeth that it is impossible to reject the authenticity) and there is Ijma’ (consensus) of the Ummah on this…By changing the name of something Haraam, it does not become Halaal. e.g. calling electronically produced pictures, “digital pictures”, or calling electronically produced music, digital music, etc. etc.”

In a special meeting of 29 senior Ulama of Pakistan presided over by Hazrat Maulana Saleemullah Khan Saheb Rahmatullahi Alaih,, the unanimous Fatwa issued regarding digital pictures, states:
“Change in mechanism and machinery, handmade, mechanical, non-digital, digital, holographic or various other ways to be introduced until Qiyaamah does not alter the Shar’ee ruling of prohibition of pictures of living beings… Therefore opening the doors of permissibility by introducing any TV channel or appearance of Ulema on television by claiming and thinking it to be a need for the propagation of Deen diametrically conflicts with the Shariah. It is the illegitimate emulation of modernity & lewdness.”

Hazrat Maulana Yusuf Ludhyaanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih, states:“These (modern) pictures cannot be excluded from the ruling of Tasweer (pictures). The most that can be said is that instead of the olden method of picture-making, technological advancement has brought about a new means of picture-making. WhenShari‘ah has declared picture-making asHaraam, then no matter which methods or means are invented, Tasweer will remainHaraam. The humble of opinion of this servant is that in hand-drawn pictures those evils are not found which are found in video and television. As for those who say that so-and-so says this and so-and-so does that, this is not a Daleel (proof) of Jawaaz (permissibility) for us. (i.e. in the face of mass-transmitted Ahadeeth and the unanimous Fatwa of all the Akaabireen Ulama)”

Allamah Yusuf Binnori Rahmatullahi Alaih, stated during his final attendance of the Pakistan Islamic Council, regarding television pictures:
“If even one person is blessed with guidance after using the permissible means, then undoubtedly our Tableegh was successful. However, if on the other hand, scores and droves of people embrace Islam on account of us adopting impermissible methods and means, then this holds no value in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.”

Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhyaanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih,states that it is worse for Ulema to have their pictures taken:
“To take a picture of oneself is Haraam in the unanimous verdict of the Ummah. In contrast to the masses, it is more despicable and evil for an Aalim or Mufti to take a picture of himself, for several reasons:

  1. First, Divine accountability on the Ulema, the intelligent and seniors is more harsh.
  2. Transgression by the Ulema emboldens the masses to transgress.
  3. Hypocrisy by the Ulema will lead to the masses believing that this sin is permissible.”

Mufti Abdur Raheem Laajpuri Rahmatullahi Alaih,has written: “The making of animate objects whether it is by drawing on walls, pages, clothes, by the means of pens, machinery, capturing by a camera, digitally or any other instrument for that matter, is not permissible. Doing this will be tantamount to committing a grave sin. However, if the nature of the pictures are of non-animate objects like beautiful sceneries, rivers, the sea, trees and mountains etc. then this will be permissible.”

Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi Rahmatullahi Alaih,has written: “Any animate picture is Haraam, irrespective of whether it is made from wood, mud, metal, gold or pen, whether it be on paper, a board, or a reverse image captured by a machine, all of this is in no way permissible.”

Mufti Muhammad Shafee’ Rahmatullahi Alaih, has written: “For making a picture, whether colour is put by means of the ink of a pen or a machine, it does not change the Mas’alah in any way.”

Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyaanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih,has written: “Making a picture of any living thing is totally Haraam and it is a major sin, no matter what kind of picture it is, big or small, on clothes or on paper, or by means of camera.”

When a picture is taken on an old-style film camera, a button is pressed which then operates a mechanism called the shutter. The shutter causes the aperture (a hole) to open briefly at the front of the camera, allowing light to enter through the lens (a thick piece of glass or plastic mounted on the front). The light causes reactions to take place in the chemicals on the film, thus storing the picture in front of you.

When the button of a digital camera is pressed, an aperture opens at the front of the camera and light streams in through the lens. So far, it’s just the same as a film camera. There is no film in a digital camera however. Instead, there is a piece of electronic equipment that captures the incoming light rays and turns them into electrical signals. This light detector is one of two types, either a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a CMOS image sensor. The sensor measures the colour and brightness of each pixel and stores it (on the medium of your choice) as a number. Your digital photograph is effectively an enormously long string of numbers describing the exact details of each pixel it contains. Once a picture is stored in numeric form, you are able to reproduce it in any way you wish.

It would be preposterous to say that wine produced by the hands is forbidden, but wine squeezed out from a machine is permissible; such a statement will be of no significance, since the underlying factor in wine being forbidden is the factor of intoxication. The manner of producing it makes no difference. Similarly, murder is Haraam whether it is enacted with a knife or with a firearm.

Considering the above, it is evident that the prohibition is a consequence of the end result and not the means. In the case of picture-making, the image, whether printed or in digital format is the factor considered, not the method of production.

Hence, if any of the above-mentioned methods, or any technique yet to be invented is used to create pictures of animate objects, it will be regarded to be a picture and thus fall under the Islamic prohibition of capturing pictures of living things.

The ruling of pictures being Tasweer is also based on Urf (the common practice and understanding of people). Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyaanwi Rahmatullahi Alaih,has written: “The ruling of something being a Tasweer or not should be based on the Urf, not science. The Urf is that digital pictures are Tasweer. This is similar to how the Shari’ah has left Subah Saadiq, sunrise and sunset to the apparent sighting of people, not scientific intricacies.”

One will be hard pressed to find a person taking a digital photograph stating, “I am not taking a picture, I am capturing the incoming light rays of the object and turning them into pixels and storing them.” Neither does he say when viewing the picture, “I am not viewing a picture, I am recalling from the memory of this device millions of pixels clustered together in a systematic way to render a reflection.”

Those who unfortunately and erroneously opine the permissibility of digital photography do so on the basis of the following premises:

  1. Digital photos/images differ from the physical pictures/images which existed in the time of Rasulullah ﷺ and will therefore do not fall under the purview of Tasweer.
  2. Digital photography/imagery is a process of reflection, like a reflection which is cast on a mirror or water.

Responses to these premises:

  1. Numerous items exist today which never existed in the time of Rasulullahﷺ . Islam however, is a complete and perfect Deen, providing Hidayaat (guidelines) for Insaan (mankind) in every facet of life until Qiyaamah.

    When a new situation arises and a ruling is not explicitly found in the Quraan-e-Majeed or Sunnah, the tools of Qiyaas and Ijtihaad have been provided by Islam through which the Faqeeh (Jurist) is able to deduce and establish a ruling. After having found a situation in the texts of the Quraan-e-Majeed and Ahadeeth similar to that of the newly arisen one, he identifies the Illat (ratio legis) found in therein. The ruling found in the texts will be applied to the new situation, by reason of the commonalities present in both.Intoxicants available today (cocaine, heroin, ecstasy etc.) were non-existent in the time of Rasulullahﷺ . The Fuqaha identified the Illat of Iskaar (intoxication) in the texts which declare liquid intoxicants as Haraam. Thereafter, they applied the same ruling to the intoxicants of today, due to the very same Illat of Iskaar being found therein.Digital photography, although having never existed in the time of Rasulullah ﷺ shares the same lllat (attempting to emulate Allah Ta’ala in His creative quality) which renders conventional photography Haraam. Consequently, digital photography/images will fall under the purview of Tasweer and the same ruling of Hurmat (impermissibility) will apply.

  2. To assimilate digital photography/images to a reflection cast on a mirror or water is questionable. A reflection being displayed in a mirror is dependent on the actual object being positioned in front of the mirror. When the object moves away, the reflection no longer remains and neither is it preserved. A digital photograph/image however, has the ability to be displayed without the presence of the actual object, and is also preserved using technical methods. The ability to store and render a digital photograph/image at will, distances it from any similarity to a reflection in a mirror. This independent existence of the digital photograph/image is the reason why it will still be considered as Tasweer.

A law in Shari’at dictates that when proofs of Hillat (permissibility) and Hurmat (impermissibility) are in opposition regarding a Mas’ala, Hurmat will be given preference. Consequently, preference will be given to the impermissibility of digital photography/images. This is also the most precautious view.

The Hurmat (impermissibility) of video-recording can be well understood from the arguments against digital photography/images mentioned above. Videos are merely picture frames moving at a very fast pace to give the impression of something moving.

There are certain exempted scenarios wherein the use of (animate) pictures will be permissible:

  1. Places where they are dishonoured, such as on the floor where they are trampled. By doing this, the reasons because of which pictures were made Haraam are no longer found. A person imitates Allah in the act of creating by making a picture, not by trampling on it. Secondly, by treading upon a picture, it takes it far away from becoming a means of Shirk, as one does not step over one’s deity.Some of the Fuqahaa opposed this ruling, on the basis that it could lead to laxity in the matter. It is therefore encouraged to refrain from even this.
  2. If the picture is so small that one is not able to make out the details of the picture (like a painting of a sunset with a little bird out in the distant horizon which is barely discernible).
  1. A picture taken for a passport, ID’s and other official reasons. In principle, this should still be regarded as something wrong. However, due to it being unavoidable and a matter of necessity, there would be leeway for this. However, one should take these types of photos reluctantly, seek the forgiveness of Allah Ta’aala and beg Him to overlook that which is out of one’s control.”


وانما فعل ذلك اوائلهم ليتأنسوا برؤية تلك الصور ويتذاكروا احوالهم الصالحة فيجتهدون كاجتهادهم مم خلف من بعدهم خلوف جهلوا مرادهم ووسوسهم الشيطان ان اسلافكم كانوا يعبدون هذه الصور ويعظموها فاعبدوها فحذر الني صلي الله عليه وسلم عن مثل ذلك سدا للذريعة المؤدية الي ذلك
 (فتح الباري ٤١٧:١) 

وكذالك لما كان الشرك ظلما عظيما وإما غير مغفور حرمت الشريعة ما كان ذريعة الي الشرك منها التصوير صنعته واستعماله
(احكام القرآن ٤٧٩:٣ مكتبة ادارة القرآن والعلوم الاسلامية)

معارف القرآن ٨: ٣٩٣ لمفتي محمد شفيع عثمان ادارة المعارف كراجي

(Bukhaari 5951, Muslim 2108)

(Bukhaari 2225, Muslim 2110)

(Bukhaari 5954 Muslim 2107)

(Fathul-Baari vol. 10 page 390)

(Bukhaari 5953, Muslim 2111)

(Bukhaari 5953, Muslim 2110)

(Muslim 2110 similar narration in Bukhaari 2225)

(Tirmidhi 2574, Ahmad 8430)

(Musnad Ahmad 3868)

(Bukhaari 5950, Muslim 2109)

(Bukhari 427, Muslim 528)

(Sharhun Nawawi of Muslim)

(Bukhaari 4002, Muslim 2106)

(Bukhaari 5960, Muslim 2105)

(Muslim 2104)

(Muslim 969, Abu Dawood 3218, Tirmidhi 1049)

(Bukhaari 3352)

(At-Tareekhul Kabeer of Bukhari 2196)

(Bukhari 5952)

(Nasai 5351, Shorter Ibn Majah 3359)

(Sunanul-Kubra of Bayhaqi 14564)

(Imdaadul Ahkaam, 4/382-4)

(Ahsanul Fataawa, 8/191)

فتاوي رحيمية ١٠ :١٥٢- ٣ ١٥ دار الاشاعات)

فتاوي بمحمودية ١١١:٥ كتب خانه مظهري

Tasweer ke shar’ee ahkaam

احسن الفتاوي ٤٣٧:٨ ايج ام سعيد

فَصَنْعَتُهُ حَرَامٌ بِكُلِّ حَالٍ لِأَنَّ فِيهِ مُضَاهَاةَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى رد المحتار على لدر المختار (1/647)

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