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Ayyamul Beedh

Question

My question is, Nabi(صلى الله عليه وسلم) told us to keep fast on ayyamul Beedh 13,14,15. Since 13 of Dhul Hijjah we can’t fast, How did the Sahaba(رضي الله عنهم) used to fast ayyamul Beedh in Dhul Hijjah?

Answer

It is a Mustahab (encouraged/liked) action to fast three days in every month and most preferably Ayyamul Beedh as numerous incidents have been recorded where Rasulullah صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ encouraged his companions to do. It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to me: “It is sufficient for you to fast three days every month, because for every good deed you will have (the reward of) ten like it, so that will be like fasting for a lifetime.” It was also narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: My close friend the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)] advised me to do three things which I will not give up until I die: fasting three days of each month, praying Duha and going to sleep after Witr. 

From the above-mentioned Hadith it is clearly understood that fasting on Ayyamul Beedh is not an obligatory act, therefore Rasulullah صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ did not emphasize on it while mentioning it to his companions. 

Conversely, According to Shariah, it is forbidden to fast on five days. They are: Eid ul Fitr, Eid ul Adha, Three days of Tashreeq. Rasulullah صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  is reported to have said:  “Do not fast in these days (Eid) for they are days of eating, drinking and rejoicing”.

Hence, when there is an explicit word forbidding an action, that action must be avoided. Fasting in the Ayyamul Beedh is not an obligation; therefore, one should not insist on fasting on the  day when it collides with another prohibition. Moreover, a person will be sinful if he fasts on those days. So, if anyone wants to act upon this action of fasting these three days in Ayyamul Beedh, he should fast on the 16th in place of the 13th of Zul Hijjah thus not contravening the prohibition.

Checked and Approved By:

Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.

References

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الوَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو التَّيَّاحِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، قَالَ: أَوْصَانِي خَلِيلِي صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِثَلَاثٍ: «صِيَامِ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ، وَرَكْعَتَيِ الضُّحَى، وَأَنْ أُوتِرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَنَامَ (صحيح البخارى 1981/3)

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ الْهَادِ، عَنْ أَبِي مُرَّةَ، مَوْلَى أُمِّ هَانِئٍ، أَنَّهُ دَخَلَ مَعَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَلَى أَبِيهِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ، فَقَرَّبَ إِلَيْهِمَا طَعَامًا، فَقَالَ: كُلْ، فَقَالَ: إِنِّي صَائِمٌ، فَقَالَ عَمْرٌو: كُلْ، فَهَذِهِ الْأَيَّامُ الَّتِي كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَأْمُرُنَا بِإِفْطَارِهَا، وَيَنْهَانَا عَنْ صِيَامِهَا»، قَالَ مَالِكٌ: وَهِيَ أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيق   (سنن ابى داؤد 2418/2)

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