1,2) It will be permissible to give one’s zakāh to a person who does not possess the nisab of zakāh which is 612.35 grams of silver (or its equivalent value Zakaatable assets) or any other surplus goods (over and above the necessities of life) equivalent to the amount of 612.35 silver. Such a person will be entitled to receive zakāh. However, if the person owns surplus items such as clothing, mobile phones, cars etc. (that he does not have a need for), and the value of these items equals to or exceeds the nisab threshold, then zakāh cannot be given to such a person.
The following group of people will be entitled to receive zakāh:
a) The Poor person (Faqir): the person who has some amount of possessions; but its value does not reach the amount of Nisaab.
b) The Destitute Person: the person who does not possess anything.
c) The zakāh collector of an Islamic state: for whom the ruler will set aside an amount for him.
d) A slave who has been granted permission to purchase his freedom (Mukatab)
e) The person in debt who is unable to settle it and does not have other savings exceeding the amount of nisab.
f) The warrior in the path of Allah.
g) The traveler who does not have access to his wealth.
3) A Sayyid (specific close family member of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) – who even though may not be liable to pay zakāh due to not owning the nisaab amount of Zakaatable wealth – is not allowed to receive zakāh. zakāh and Sadaqah are the “filth” of one’s wealth which is given out to purify one’s earnings. The honour of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam and his noble family should not be tarnished tainted by the “filth” of our wealth. For this reason, it is not permissible to give zakāt to a sayyid.If some Sayyid is in need then one should use moneys other than zakāh or Sadaqah and forward that as a gift. It will be a means of immense reward.
Similarly, a person who does not own Zakaatable assets to the value of Nisaab, but he possesses surplus assets (such as a second home that was not bought for reselling, or a second motor vehicle that he hardly uses), will not be liable to pay zakāh,but at the same time he is not eligible to collect zakāh (due to the fact that the value of these surplus items will in all probability exceed the value of Nisaab).
4) Yes, you will pay zakāh on Zakaatable wealth (such as pocket money, etc) that was received before the end of the zakāh year, even if it was received a day before your annual zakāh date.
It does not matter that one did not have this amount for a full year, because if a person possesses the nisab at the beginning and at the end of the year, zakāh will be due on the total amount of his wealth at the end of the year. As a result, any amount received even a day before your annual zakāh date will be added to your total wealth and zakāh given on it.
Likewise, any Zakaatable wealth that leaves your ownership even a day before your annual zakāh date will be subtracted from your total wealth and will not be included in the calculation of zakāh.