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Importance Of Hijab

Question

There is some confusion with regards to the interaction between males and females.

People who want to follow the aslaf are told that they are extreme. They use the fact that the sahaabahs used to learn from the female sahaabiyahs, the muhaddithun narrated ahaadith from the muhaddithat, our mother Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha watched Abyssinian slaves etc.

We are hearing more of this and it is becoming difficult for people to stay on the path of the elders.

As there is no knowledge of this. Our students just ‘go with the flow’, whatever environment is dominant they will go in that direction – e.g. they’ll attend meetings and teacher training sessions with men when in a muslim school whilst wearing a full veil and at the same time in the maktab they’ll feel hesitant when a muslim male educator wants to train the apas on how to teach (he is at the front of the classroom, whilst the apas in their veils are looking at him).

If there was a detailed discussion regarding this. It would put our minds at peace. We wouldn’t have to respond to them but it would help create more firmness in us.

Answer

The numerous harms of opposite genders freely intermingling and the benefits of Hijab (segregation) between them are so self-evident that there is really no need for any explanation. As such, it is only natural that the sources of the Shari’ah (Quran, Sunnah, ‘Ijma and Qiyaas) would be unequivocally clear regarding the need for Hijab between the opposite genders. Hereunder, are some examples of Nusoos (legal source texts) from the Quran and Ahaadith regarding the importance of Hijab:

﴿يَٰنِسَآءَ ٱلنَّبِيِّ لَسۡتُنَّ كَأَحَدٖ مِّنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ إِنِ ٱتَّقَيۡتُنَّۚ فَلَا تَخۡضَعۡنَ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ فَيَطۡمَعَ ٱلَّذِي فِي قَلۡبِهِۦ مَرَضٞ وَقُلۡنَ قَوۡلٗا مَّعۡرُوفٗا٣٢ وَقَرۡنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجۡنَ تَبَرُّجَ ٱلۡجَٰهِلِيَّةِ ٱلۡأُولَىٰۖ وَأَقِمۡنَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتِينَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَأَطِعۡنَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥٓۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُذۡهِبَ عَنكُمُ ٱلرِّجۡسَ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمۡ تَطۡهِيرٗا٣٣﴾

«O wives of the Prophet , you are not like anyone among women if you have Taqwa (because it is by virtue of Taqwa that people enjoy higher status than others). (When it is necessary to speak to non-Mahram males) then do not be soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is disease (weak Imaan, lust) should be enticed. And speak in a befitting manner. And remain in your homes (yes, when it is absolutely necessary to leave your homes, leave properly attired as mentioned in verse 59 of this Surah) and do not display yourselves as (was) the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish Salaat and give Zakaat and obey Allah and His Messenger . Allah only wishes to rid you of filth (of sin), O people of the (Prophet’s ) household, and to purify you thoroughly (33:32-33) »

﴿يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَدۡخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ ٱلنَّبِيِّ إِلَّآ أَن يُؤۡذَنَ لَكُمۡ إِلَىٰ طَعَامٍ غَيۡرَ نَٰظِرِينَ إِنَىٰهُ وَلَٰكِنۡ إِذَا دُعِيتُمۡ فَٱدۡخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمۡتُمۡ فَٱنتَشِرُواْ وَلَا مُسۡتَ‍ٔۡنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمۡ كَانَ يُؤۡذِي ٱلنَّبِيَّ فَيَسۡتَحۡيِۦ مِنكُمۡۖ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَسۡتَحۡيِۦ مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّۚ وَإِذَا سَأَلۡتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَٰعٗا فَسۡ‍َٔلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٖۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ أَطۡهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمۡ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّۚ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمۡ أَن تُؤۡذُواْ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَآ أَن تَنكِحُوٓاْ أَزۡوَٰجَهُۥ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦٓ أَبَدًاۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمۡ كَانَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ عَظِيمًا٥٣﴾

«O you who have Imaan, enter the rooms of the Nabi only when you are permitted to do so to partake of a meal. Then too, do not wait for it (the meal) to be prepared (by arriving too early), but enter when you are called, and when you have eaten, disperse without seeking to remain for (lengthy) conversation. Indeed, this (arriving too early and remaining behind afterwards) was troubling Nabi , but he is shy of (dismissing) you. But Allah does not shy away from the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for something, ask them from behind a Hijab (partition, without seeing them). That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not (lawful) for you to harm the Messenger of Allah (in any way) or to marry his wives after him, ever. Indeed, that would be grave in the sight of Allah (33:53) »

These verses deal with the issue of Hijab, an important pillar in Islam’s reform of the society. Hijab is all about blocking the attractiveness of a woman from other men. That attractiveness has a very useful purpose within marriage and a very destructive role outside it. These verses directly address the Mothers of believers Radhiallahu Anhunna because they were the exemplars of all the women of the Ummah. In these verses, women are instructed to stay within the confines of their homes unless there is some necessity; and when there is a need for some men to interact with them, then it must be done with a Hijab (partition) in between; and even at that time of need, the woman must not speak softly with the men or in an informal and casual manner with them.

عن حمزة بن أولى أُسَيد الأنصاريِّ عن أبيه، أنه سَمعَ رسولَ الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم – يقولُ وهو خارجٌ مِن المسجدِ، فاختلطَ الرجالُ مَعَ النساءِ في الطريق، فقالَ رسولُ الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-للنساءِ: “استَأخِرْنَ، فإنَّه ليسَ لَكُنَّ أن تَحْقُقْنَ الطريقَ، عليكُنَّ بحافَاتِ الطَريق” قال: فكانت المرأةُ تلصَقُ بالجِدارِ، حتى إن ثوبَها ليتعلَّق بالجدارِ مِن لصوقِها به.

Hadhrat Abu Usayd Radhiallahu Anhu says that he heard the Messenger of Allah say when he was coming out of the Masjid, and men and women were mingled on the road, “O women draw back! for you must not walk in the middle of the road; keep to the sides of the road.” Abu Usayd Radhiallahu Anhu said, “Thereafter women began to keep so close to the walls (which are on the sides of the road) that their garments were brushing against the walls.” (Sunan Abu Dawud no. 5272)

When Rasulullah  never permitted males and females (who just came out of the Masjid and were completely covered from head to toe) to intermingle in the streets, although it was a vast open space, we can well imagine what the ruling would be for a confined space like a room. 

عن عمرو بن شُعيب، عن أبيه عن جدِّه، قال: قال رسولُ الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: “مُرُوا أولاكمِ بالصلاةِ وهم أبناءُ سبعِ سِنينَ، واضرِبوهم عليها وهم أبناءُ عَشرٍ، وفرِّقوا بينهم في المَضاجِعِ”.

Rasullullah said, “Command your children to perform Salaah when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (upon missing out Salaah) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately.”
(Sunan Abu Dawud no. 495)

In the above Hadith, Rasulullah   ordered the guardians to separate the beds of boys and girls at the tender age of ten (this is the age where the child’s mind begins to understand the attractiveness of the opposite gender, so what to say of teenagers and adults!?). This command was to inculcate into the young generation of Muslims the need and importance of Hijab between the opposite genders. Although, the boys and girls may be brothers and sisters, the accursed Shaitaan is always present (so what to say of men and women who are unrelated!?).

عن أبي سعيد الخدري قالت النساء للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: غلبنا عليك الرجال، فاجعل لنا يوما من نفسك، فوعدهن يوما لقيهن فيه، فوعظهن وأمرهن، الخ.

Hadhrat Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri Radhiallahu Anhu narrates that some women requested Nabi to arrange a day for advising them as the men were taking up all of his time. On that he promised them one day for religious lessons and commandments. (Sahih Bukhari no. 101)

This Hadith clearly shows that in the platform of Ta’leem (teaching and learning), women were kept completely separate from men during the era of Rasulullah. Ta’leem for the womenfolk is indeed a praiseworthy act. However, one must never compromise one’s Deen when doing so. Ta’leem will only be worthy of praise and acceptance in the eyes of Allah Ta’aala when it is done while following in the footsteps of Rasulullah.  In Islam, as a rule, ends do not justify the means; one’s good intentions cannot turn a Haram thing into Halal. The message of Islam is a very serious message. We have to make sure that it is not distorted or compromised by the medium we choose to deliver it.

عن عائشةَ قالت: أوْمتِ امرأةٌ مِنْ وراءِ سِتْرٍ بيدِهَا كتابٌ إلى رسولِ الله – صلَّى الله عليه وسلم -، فقبضَ النبيُّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلم- يَدَه، فقال: “ما أدرِي أيَدُ رجُلٍ أم يَدُ امرأةِ” قالت: بل امرأة، قال: “لو كُنْتِ امرأةً لغيَّرتِ أظفاركِ” يعني بالحناءِ.

Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha narrates that a woman made a sign from behind a curtain to indicate that she had a letter for Rasulullah . Rasulullah pulled back his hand, saying, “I do not know whether this is a man’s or a woman’s hand”. She said, “It is a woman’s (hand).” He said, “If you were a woman, you would make a difference to your nails,”( meaning, by applying henna on the hands).
(Sunan Abu Dawud no. 4166)

This Hadith clearly shows that whenever strange women came in the presence of Rasulullah  due to some necessity, there would always be a Hijab (partition) between him and them.

عن أُمِّ سلمة، قالت: كنتُ عندَ رسولِ الله – صلَّى الله عليه وسلم – وعنده “مَيْمونَةُ، فأقبلَ ابنُ أُمَّ مكتومٍ، وذلك بعد أن أُمِرنا بالحِجَابِ، فقال النبيُّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلم-: “احتَجِبَا مِنْه” فَقُلنا: يا رسولَ الله، أليس أعمى، لا يُبْصِرُنَا ولا يَعْرِفُنَا؟ فقال النبيَّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلم-: “أفَعَمياوانِ أنتمُا؟ ألستما تُبْصِرَانِهِ”؟

Hadhrat Umm Salamah Radhiallahu Anha narrates: I was with Rasulullah  while Maymunah Radhiallahu Anha was with him. Then Ibn Umm Maktum Radhiallahu Anhu came. This happened when we were ordered to observe the Hijab. Rasulullah said, “Observe the Hijab from him”. We asked, “O Rasulullah ! Is he not blind? He can neither see us nor recognise us.” Rasulullah said, “Are the two of you blind? Do the two of you not see him?”
(Sunan Abu Dawud no. 4112)

Would we call this approach of Rasulullah  extreme? Of course not! The decree of Hijab from Allah Ta’aala is absolute and encompasses everyone. With the exception of the Mahrams and children, everyone else must strictly observe the rules of Hijab.

وعن علي أنه كان عند رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقال: ” أي شيء خير للمرأة؟ فسكتوا فلما رجعت قلت لفاطمة: أي شيء خير للنساء؟ ” قالت: لا يراهن الرجال. فذكرت ذلك للنبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقال: ” إنما فاطمة بضعة مني – رضي الله عنها. رواه البزار، وفيه من لم أعرفه. (مجمع الزوائد رقم:15200 مكتبة القدسي)

Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu Anhu narrates that he was present when Rasulullah asked, “What is best for a woman?” The (male) companions kept quiet. When I returned (to my home), I said to Fatimah Radhiallahu Anha, “What is best for a woman?” she replied, “That men never see her.” I mentioned this (answer) to Rasulullah  and he (due to his happiness with the correct understanding of Hadhrat Fatimah Radhiallahu Anha) said, “Verily, Fatimah is a part of me.”
(Musnad Bazzar no.526)

This Hadith is self-evident and is in no need for an explanation.

عن عائشة، قالت: خرجت مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في بعض أسفاره وأنا جارية لم أحمل اللحم ولم أبدن، فقال للناس: ” تقدموا ” فتقدموا، ثم قال لي: ” تعالي حتى أسابقك ” فسابقته فسبقته، فسكت عني، حتى إذا حملت اللحم وبدنت ونسيت، خرجت معه في بعض أسفاره، فقال للناس: ” تقدموا ” فتقدموا، ثم قال: ” تعالي حتى أسابقك ” فسابقته، فسبقني، فجعل يضحك، وهو يقول: ” هذه بتلك “

Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha said: (When I was still young and slim), I accompanied Nabi on one of his travels [it is important to note here that whenever the wives of Nabi or any other free women would travel with him, they would travel in a Hawdaj (a canopy on camel-back) which would obstruct others from viewing them]. Nabi said to the men, “Proceed ahead!” So, they carried on (until they could no longer see us), and then he said to me, “Come, let us have a race.” So, I raced with him and I beat him but he did not say anything to me. Until a time came when I put on some weight and had forgotten (the previous race), I accompanied him on one of his travels. Nabi said to the people, “Proceed ahead!” So, they carried on (until they could no longer see us) and then he said to me, “Come let us have a race.” So, I raced with him and he beat me. He started to laugh and said, “This (victory) is for that (previous defeat).”
(Musnad Ahmed no. 26277)

Even on the occasion of play, Nabi  was never unmindful of the decree of Hijab. This incident goes to show just how vital the decree of Hijab is according to the Shari’ah. 

When the Shari’ah (Quran and Sunnah) is so clear with regard to the importance of Hijab, it is only natural that the Sahabah Radhiallahu Anum , Tabi’een  Rahmatullahi Alaihim (their successors), the A’immah Mujtahideen Rahmatullahi Alaihim (the four great Imaams) etc.—who were the most desirous of following the Shari’ah—would strictly observe Hijab and give rulings in accordance to it. Just by way of supporting examples, we will mention some of their anecdotes:

Hadhrat Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad (a great Tabi’ee) Rahmatullahi Alaih narrates: “My father used to send me to Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha and (as a child), I used to go to her (i.e. inside of the curtain). But on the year that I attained maturity, I came to her and called out to her from outside of the Hijab (curtain): “O mother of the believers, when does the Ghusal (bath) become compulsory?” She said (in a light-hearted manner): “So, you have done it (intercourse)? O Luka (small boy)!” I informed her that my father sent me to ask this, so she replied: “When the private parts conjoin.”

Hadhrat Abu Sa’eed Ar-Raqaashi Rahmatullahi Alaih narrates that he asked Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha regarding Nabeedh (a drink derived after immersing dates into water) made in a container. So, she showed me a container from behind the Hijab (curtain) and said: “Verily, Rasulullah  used to dislike (Nabeedh) made from this (specific type of) container”

Hadhrat Ibn Juraij Rahmatullahi Alaih said, “’Ata Rahmatullahi Alaih informed us that when Ibn Hisham (the leader of Hajj at the time) forbade women to perform Tawaaf with men (i.e. completely, even if they avoided mingling with the men), he said to him, ‘How do you forbid them while the wives of Rasulullah  used to perform Tawaaf with the men?’ I said, ‘Was this before the decree of Hijab or after it? `Ata Rahmatullahi Alaih took an oath and said, ‘It was after the decree of Hijab.’ I said, ‘How did they mingle with the men (i.e. how is it possible that they did not observe the decree of Hijab)?’ `Ata Rahmatullahi Alaih said, ‘The women never mingled with the men, and `Ayesha Radiallahu Anha used to perform Tawaaf separately and never mingled with men. Once it happened that `Ayesha Radiallahu Anha was performing the Tawaaf and a woman said to her, ‘O Mother of believers! Let us touch the Black stone.’ `Ayesha Radiallahu Anha said to her, ‘Go yourself (i.e. don’t involve us in your shamelessness)’ and she herself refused to do so (due to the possibility of mingling with men when doing so). The wives of Rasuullah  used to come out in the cover of the night to perform Tawaaf when some men also used to perform their Tawaaf, but this was done without any mingling with the men. And whenever they intended to enter the Ka`bah, they would remain outside till the men had gone out.

I (‘Ata Rahmatullahi Alaih) and `Ubaid bin `Umair Rahmatullahi Alaih used to visit `Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha while she was residing at Jauf Thabir (a mountain’s name).” I asked, “What was her Hijab at that moment?” `Ata said, “She was in an old Turkish tent that was covering her, this was a screen between us and her. ‘Ata Rahmatullahi Alaih said: But I saw a reddish covering on her when I was an (immature) child.”

A woman narrates that she was with Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha when a freed female slave of hers came and said: “O mother of the believers, I made Tawaaf of the Ka’bah seven times and even got the chance to kiss the black stone twice or thrice.” So Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha said to her: “May Allah not reward you! May Allah not reward you! You pushed and shoved alongside of men! Why did you not just recite the Takbir (when coming in line with the black stone) and carry on?”

Hadhrat Shar bin Hawshab Rahmatullahi Alaih narrates: I asked Hadhrat Umm Salamah Radhiallahu Anha who was behind the Hijab: “Which Dua would Rasulullah  recite the most when it was your turn (i.e. when Rasulullah  was by you)?” She replied: “He used to recite:

يَا مُقَلِّبَ الْقُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِينِكَ

(O Controller of the hearts, make my heart steadfast on Your Deen).”[vii]

Hadhrat Zubair Rahmatullahi Alaih said that Imam Malik Rahmatullahi Alaih had a daughter who had memorized the Muwatta in its entirety. She would stand behind the door, and whenever the reader would commit any mistake in his recitation, she would knock the door and Imam Malik Rahmatullahi Alaih would realise and correct the mistake of the reader.

This then is the condition of our mother, Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha, the first and foremost of the Muhaddithaat, and other great women of Islam. It is ironic that people would even dare to take Hadhrat Ayesha’s Radhiallahu Anha name to prove that Hijab is unnecessary! Although, she was the narrator of the incident of the Abyssinians’ training for war, she never understood from it that Hijab is now unnecessary and intermingling between the genders is now permissible. Furthermore, it is very far-fetched to use this incident to prove that Hijab is not necessary, the exact wording of the narration may be referred to in the endnote.

For the sake of brevity, we will just quote from one of the great scholars of Islam, Imam Ibn Jawzi Rahmatullahi Alaih, (d. 597 A.H.):

“The woman has (the same) duty as the man; so, it is (incumbent) upon her to learn about her religious duties and obligations until she is firm and sure on how to perform them. If she has a father, brother, husband, or any blood relation who can teach her the obligations of religion and instruct her in how to do her duties, then that will suffice her. If there is no one there (from her close family) she must ask others (outside the family) and learn from them. If she is able to find a woman who can teach her, she will learn from her. If not, she will learn from the old and elderly men without them being in seclusion with her, and she will suffice with what is necessary (for her to know). (After that) whenever any new situation arises about her religion, she should ask and not be shy, for Allah does not shy away from the truth.”

We are not aware of any difference of opinion among the scholars of the past fourteen centuries regarding the necessity of Hijab (i.e. there is Ijma (consensus) on it being necessary).

Checked and Approved By:

Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.

References

وفي الحديث مراعاة الإمام أحوال المأمومين والاحتياط في اجتناب ما قد يفضي إلى المحذور وفيه اجتناب مواضع التهم وكراهة مخالطة الرجال للنساء في الطرقات فضلا عن البيوت. (فتح الباري 2/336 دار المعرفة)

 قال: أخبرنا عارم بن الفضل قال: حدثنا حماد بن زيد عن الصقعب بن زهير عن عبد الرحمن بن الأسود قال: بعثني أبي إلى عائشة أسألها سنة احتملت. فأتيتها فناديتها من وراء الحجاب فقالت: أفعلتها أي لكع؟ قلت: قال أبي ما يوجب الغسل؟ قالت: إذا التقت المواسي. (الطبقات الكبرى لإبن سعد 6/294 دار الكتب العلمية)

قال الصقعب بن زهير: عن عبد الرحمن بن الأسود، قال: كان أبي يبعثني إلى أم المؤمنين عائشة، فلما احتلمت، أتيتها، فناديت من وراء الحجاب: يا أم المؤمنين، ما يوجب الغسل؟ فقالت: أفعلتها يا لكع؟ إذا التقت المواسي. (سير أعلام النبلاء 5/11 دار الرسالة)

أبا سعيد الرقاشي، يقول: سألت عائشة عن نبيذ الجر فأخرجت إلي جرة من وراء الحجاب فقالت: ” إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يكره ما يصنع في هذه ” (مسند احمد الرقم:26144)

لأن بن هشام منعهن أن يطفن حين يطوف الرجال مطلقا فلهذا أنكر عليه عطاء واحتج بصنيع عائشة (فتح الباري 3/480 دار المعرفة)

عبد الرزاق قال: أخبرنا ابن جريج قال: أخبرني عطاء، أنه منع ابن هشام النساء الطواف مع الرجال، فأخبرني وقال: كيف تمنعهن الطواف؟ وقد طاف نساء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مع الرجال. قلت: أبعد الحجاب؟ قال: إي لعمري أدركت لعمري بعد الحجاب، قلت: كيف يخالطن الرجال؟ قال: لم يكن يفعلن، كانت عائشة تطوف حجرة من الرجال لا تخالطهم، فقالت امرأة معها: انطلقي بنا يا أم المؤمنين نستلم فجذبتها وقالت: «انطلقي عنك» وأبت أن تستلم، وكن يخرجن مستترات بالليل، فيطفن مع الرجال لا يخالطنهم قال: ولكنهن إذا دخلن البيت سترن حين يدخلن، ثم أخرج عنه الرجال قال: وكنت آتي عائشة أنا وعبيد بن عمير وهي مجاورة في جوف ثبير، قلت: فما حجابها حينئذ؟ قال: هي في قبة لها تركية عليها غشاء لها، بيننا وبينها قال: ولكن قد رأيت عليها درعا معصفرا وأنا صبي ” (مصنف عبد الرزاق الرقم: 9018)

عن منبوذ بن أبي سليمان عن أمه أنها كانت عند عائشة أم المؤمنين رضي الله تعالى عنها فدخلت عليها مولاة لها فقالت لها: يا أم المؤمنين طفت بالبيت سبعا واستلمت الركن مرتين أو ثلاثا، فقالت لها عائشة ” لا آجرك الله لا آجرك الله، تدافعين الرجال؟ ألا كبرت ومررت” (كتاب الأم للشافعي 3/435 دار الوفاء)

حدثنا مؤمل بن إهاب أبو عبد الرحمن، قال: حدثنا زيد بن الحباب العكلي، قال: حدثنا أبو كعب الأزدي، قال: حدثنا شهر، قال: سألت أم سلمة من وراء الحجاب ما كان أكثر دعاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في يومك؟ قالت: كان يقول: «يا مقلب القلوب ثبت قلبي على دينك». قالت: فقلت: يا رسول الله ما أكثر ما تدعو بهذا الدعاء فقال: «يا أم سلمة أوما علمت أن قلب العبد بين أصبعين من أصابع الله عز وجل يرفع منه ما يشاء ويثبت منه ما يشاء؟» (الكنى والأسماء للدولابي 3/938 دار ابن حزم)

قال الزبير، كان لمالك ابنة تحفظ علمه يعني الموطأ. وكان تقف خلف الباب فإذا غلط القارىء نقرت الباب فيفطن مالك فيرد عليه. (ترتيب المدارك 1/116-117)

كان يوم عيد، يلعب السودان بالدرق والحراب، فإما سألت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وإما قال: «تشتهين تنظرين؟» فقلت: نعم، فأقامني وراءه، خدي على خده، وهو يقول: «دونكم يا بني أرفدة» حتى إذا مللت، قال: «حسبك؟» قلت: نعم، قال: «فاذهبي». (صحيح البخاري الرقم: 950)

“It was the day of Eid. The Abyssinians were playing (training) with shields and lances. Then either I asked Nabi or he asked me whether I wanted to see them training and I said yes. So, he made me stand behind him, with my cheeks against his cheeks. He said, “Carry on Banu Arfidah (the tribe of Abyssinians).” When I was tired, he asked, “Is that sufficient for you?” I said yes. He said, “Then you can leave.” (Sahih Bukhari no. 950) It is clear from this that there was no intermingling whatsoever. Furthermore, whilst standing right next to Rasulullah there was no possibility of any Fitnah occurring (unlike the situation in today’s era of Fitnah)

الباب الثالث في وجوبِ طلب العلم على المرأة

المرأة شخص مكلَّف كالرجل، فيجب عليها طلب علم الواجبات عليها؛ لتكون من أدائها على يقين. فإنْ لم يكن لها أب، أو أخ، أو زوج، أو محرم، يعلِّمها الفرائض، ويعرِّفها كيف تؤدي الواجبات، كفاها ذلك، وإنْ لم تكن سألت وتعلمت، فإن قدرت على امرأة تعلم ذلك، تعرفت منها، وإلا تعلّمت من الأشياخ، وذوي الأسنان من غير خلوة بها، وتقتصر على قدر اللازم، ومتى حدثت حادثة في دينها سألت عنها، ولم تستحِ، فإنَّ الله لا يستحي من الحق. (أحكام النساء لإبن الجوزي ص25 دار الفكر)

 قال أبو بكر العامري (المعروف بــ ابن الخبّاز، المتوفي ۵۳۰ ه): «اتفقت علماء الأمة أن من اعتقد حل هذه المحظورات، وإباحة امتزاج الرجال بالنسوان الأجانب فقد کفر واستحق القتل بردته، وإن اعتقد تحريمه وفعله، وأقر عليه، ورضي به فقد فسق، لا يسمع له قول، ولا تقبل له شهادة،». (أحكام النظر إلى المحرمات وما فيه من الخطر والآفات والرد على من استباح حله وادعى العصمة فيه من الفتنة ص 83)

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